Who is covered?
Consumer rights are only given to consumers. A consumer is someone who purchases goods or services for personal use (ie a private individual buying goods/services for their own personal use). These rights do not apply to businesses or individuals who purchase goods or services on behalf of a business.
What is covered?
These rights apply to any goods or services you buy. Goods can be anything tangible such as a t-shirt, a kettle, a car, second-hand items or goods bought online.
Digital content is covered by consumer rights and can include computer games, films, music, ebooks or mobile apps. However, the rules on digital content are slightly different and complex. For more information, read Consumer rights when purchasing digital content.
Consumer rights apply to any services purchased. Services can cover a wide range of things such as haircuts, dry cleaning, fitted kitchens, bathrooms and home repairs and where goods may also be included as part of a service (eg replacement parts and building materials).
It's important to remember that these rights only apply to goods or services bought after 1 October 2015. Anything bought before that date will have slightly different rights and would require further investigation.
Consumer rights when buying goods
Purchased goods require a certain level of product quality and should meet. the following standards:
fit for purpose
Satisfactory quality is defined as what a 'reasonable' person would be happy with, looking at all the information readily available such as price (if relevant). Therefore, a luxury or handmade product, like bespoke cupboards or a designer jumper, would have a higher standard as to what is considered satisfactory. In contrast, a second-hand item would have a much lower standard.
The goods should match any description that was provided or was available to you. For example, if a jumper was advertised as being red, but it turned out to be blue, then the jumper was not 'as described'.
Fit for purpose
'Fit for purpose' means that the goods should be usable for their intended purpose. For example, if you bought a pair of shoes and the stitching started to undo after a short while they would not be considered 'fit for purpose.
What happens if the goods don't meet these standards?
If the goods you purchased don't meet the standards mentioned above, then you should make a direct complaint to the retailer or seller who sold you the goods. This is crucial as some retailers may state that you need to make a claim to the manufacturer instead.
As part of your consumer rights, you have a 30-day right to reject faulty goods. This means that you can state that you no longer want the goods, as they are not of satisfactory quality, as described or fit for purpose, and claim a full refund. The time limit starts from the moment you purchase the goods.
Once the 30-day right to reject has lapsed (ie the 30 days have passed), you will not be legally entitled to a full refund but you still have some rights. You have to give the retailer one opportunity to repair or replace the goods. You may still be able to receive a partial refund instead of a repair or replacement, especially if the cost of repair or replacement is disproportionate (ie the cost of repairing is substantially more than the cost of the original product).
If a fault develops after the first 6 months, then the burden is on the customer who needs to prove that the product was faulty at the time of purchase or delivery. This may require an expert opinion or evidence.
What happens if I just change my mind about the goods?
You won't have an automatic right to get a refund if you decide to change your mind about something you've bought. It will be up to the seller or retailer to decide whether to give you a refund. However, many stores offer a 'goodwill gesture' where they will offer a refund if you've decided to change your mind as long as you provide proof of purchase and the item is in a saleable condition (ie unused or with the tags still attached).
What happens if the delivery is late or if my goods never arrive?
If you bought something that is going to be delivered, it’s the seller's responsibility to ensure the item is delivered to you. If the seller used a courier, they should chase the courier to check the status of your order.
If your delivery is late, you should check the delivery address you gave the seller and contact them to ask where your order is. If the seller claims they've delivered it or don't know where it is, you can ask for redelivery. You might be able to get a refund in some circumstances.
For redelivery, you can ask the seller to deliver:
by an agreed date
within a reasonable time (usually within 30 days)
Alternatively, you can cancel and ask for your money back if you don’t get the item either:
within 30 days of buying it
on the date you agreed with the seller (if it was essential to receive it by then eg for an event)
on the date of the second chance delivery you agreed with the seller
Consumer rights when buying services
When you buy services, you will also have protection if anything goes wrong. A trader performing a service must:
perform the service with reasonable care and skill
provide the service for a reasonable price, where it was not agreed beforehand
perform the service in a reasonable time period, if it was not agreed beforehand
Reasonable care and skill
This means that the service must be performed to the same standard as other professionals or traders who perform the same service. For example, a hairdresser would be compared to the standard of other hairdressers.
Reasonable price and time period
Where the price for the service was not agreed beforehand, the trader must only charge a reasonable price for the service performed. The same applies to the time period for which the trader must perform the service.
For example, if you had hired a builder to complete home improvements, then where the time period was not agreed beforehand, the trader should complete the work within a reasonable time (ie not too long after the service was paid for).
What happens if the service doesn't meet this criteria?
If the service doesn't meet the above standards, then you can ask the trader:
to redo the part of the service that's inadequate, or perform the whole service again at no extra cost within a reasonable time and without causing you significant inconvenience; or
where it's impossible to repeat the service or can't be done within a reasonable time period, you can claim a price reduction. Depending on how severe or how poorly the service was performed, you could receive up to 100% of the cost. If the trader is going to refund you, they must refund you within 14 days of agreeing to a refund.
What happens if I just change my mind about the service?
If you change your mind about a service you’ve arranged online, over the phone or by mail-order, you get a 14-day cooling-off period. For example, if you've hired a cleaner or gardener or asked a solicitor to sell your house or a plumber to service your boiler. During the 14 days, you can cancel for any reason and get your money back. However, there are some services to which this does not apply. These include:
accommodation (eg a hotel room or a short-term let)
transport of goods (including courier services)
vehicle rental services
catering or leisure activities for specific dates (eg hotel and restaurant bookings, theatre tickets, catering for a wedding or party)
This cooling-off period doesn’t apply where you arranged the service at the business‘ premises. In these cases, if you have already formalised the contract with the seller and you cancel, you’re unlikely to get all your money back. However, it is important to check terms and conditions to see what the cancellation clause states. Usually, there would be a cancellation fee, but you may be able to get some of the money back.
What about goods/services I bought outside of the UK?
If you've bought goods from another country within the EU then you should contact the UK European Consumer Centre for help with problems buying goods or services from another EU country.
What should I do if the retailer won't refund my faulty product?
In the first instance, you should try and resolve this informally with the retailer or seller by contacting them and stating your consumer rights. It's also important to act fast as the entitlement to a full refund only lasts for 30 days from when you bought the goods or services or had it delivered.
You should collect and keep any evidence you have such as pictures of the quality of the product, receipts to act as proof of purchase, contracts you signed or any terms and conditions available to you.
In any event, provided that you are located in England and Wales, you can make a claim to the Small Claims Court if the retailer or seller is being uncooperative. Read Small claims court for more information.
If you are located in Scotland, you can make a court claim for money to the Sheriff Court. However, this should always be used as a last resort. Read Small claims court in Scotland for more information.
You can also make a complaint to the Consumer Ombudsman or your local Citizens Advice Bureau. The Citizens Advice Bureau have a dedicated Consumer Service helpline and can help you lodge a complaint and enforce your consumer rights.
What happens if a faulty product damages my property?
If a faulty product has caused damage to your property (eg a leaking faulty washing machine causing damage to flooring) then you may be able to claim the costs of rectifying the damage from the retailer or seller.
However, you will only be able to claim compensation for damage if the cost of the damage is more than £275. The total amount that you can claim will depend on the harm suffered, but there is no upper limit to compensation.
The process for making a claim for compensation is the same as the process used to request a refund described above.
Do I have a right to repair?
From 1 July 2021, the Ecodesign for Energy-Related Products and Energy Information Regulations 2021 (the Ecodesign Regulations) introduced rights for consumers granting further rights to repairs to defective home appliances. Under the Ecodesign Regulations, spare parts for certain electric appliances repairs must be made available for repairs without consumers having to show the cause of the defect.
For more information, read Consume right to repairs.