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How Brexit affects individuals

After the UK left the European Union (EU) on 31 January 2020, the UK was in a transition period to prepare for the consequences of Brexit. This transition period ended on 31 December 2020. This guide explains how Brexit might affect you.

As the UK is no longer part of the EU, there are new restrictions in place that might affect the way you travel and the rights you have within the EU, Norway, Switzerland, Iceland or Liechtenstein. It’s important that you have all the correct travel documents and plan effectively before visiting an EU country. 


If you are only visiting an EU country for a short period of time (eg a two-week holiday), you will not be required to purchase a visa. 

UK citizens are allowed to enter and stay for up to 90 days in the EU within a 180-day period. This means that from the date that travellers first enter any EU country, they are permitted to remain there or travel to other EU countries for a maximum of 90 days. For country-specific information, you should check the visa requirements of your destination on the UK government’s foreign travel advice page. 

If you plan to stay in the EU beyond the 90-day period (eg to study or work in that country), you may need to apply for a visa or permit. Please note that individual EU countries may have their own additional requirements for individuals travelling on business. 

See the UK government website for information on your specific business trip destination. 


Before entering an EU country, you should make sure that your passport is valid for at least 6 months on the date of travel, and less than 10 years old. 

If you are concerned that you might not meet these requirements, the UK government has set up a check your passport service to determine whether your passport will be valid on the date of travel to enter your destination country. 

If you do not meet these new requirements, your passport may require renewal and this can be a lengthy process.

Entering the EU

When you arrive at your destination country in the EU, the border control authorities may require you to:

  • display a return or onward ticket
  • prove you have enough money for your stay
  • use separate lanes from EU, EEA and Swiss citizens when queueing at passport checking lanes

In 2022, the EU is introducing a new system of electronic travel authorisation, named ETIAS (European Travel Information and Authorisation System), similar to the US ESTA system. This will mean British citizens entering a Schengen Area country from 2022 onwards will likely need to register their details on an online platform for security purposes before travelling. Once registered under ETIAS, British citizens are allowed to enter the EU as many times as they want within a 3 year period, after which they must re-register. Naturally, this is subject to the 90-day limit set out above. 

Driving in the EU

For individuals intending to drive a vehicle in an EU country, there are new restrictions to be aware of.

If you plan on driving your own car and using your UK driving licence, you should check if you need:

  • a UK sticker
  • proof of vehicle  insurance
  • an International Driving Permit (IDP) for some countries
  • headlight converter stickers
  • emission stickers (permits)
  • a reflective jacket and warning triangle 

These requirements may be different for renting a vehicle in an EU country, so be sure to check this with your rental car provider before your date of travel. For more information, see Driving abroad

Healthcare in Europe

European Health Insurance Cards (EHIC) are no longer issued by the UK. If you have a UK EHIC, it will be valid until the expiry date on the card. Once your EHIC expires, you’ll need to apply for a Global Health Insurance Card (GHIC) to replace it. A GHIC lets you get state healthcare in Europe at a reduced cost or sometimes for free.

The UK government has strongly encouraged travellers to obtain appropriate travel insurance that covers healthcare before entering the EU. This is important for individuals with pre-existing medical conditions, as many travel insurance policies will only provide coverage for unforeseen health problems. 

Mobile roaming in the EU

Free mobile roaming in Europe is no longer guaranteed for UK mobile users. You should check what roaming charges will apply to you in Europe with your network provider. 

The UK government has passed a new law to limit roaming charges to £45. Once this cap is reached, the user will have to opt in to spend more and continue using their mobile phone abroad. The government has also legislated to ensure that consumers receive alerts when they are at 80% and 100% data usage.

Travelling with pets 

The current pet passport scheme no longer applies to UK citizens. Instead, individuals travelling with pets (including assistance dogs) must follow a new process, depending on the future ‘listed status’ of the UK. The new process can take up to 4 months to complete, so any pet travel should be planned far in advance of your departure date.

The UK government has provided useful advice on pet travel to Europe. This will be updated once the UK’s listed status is decided by the EU.

When returning to the UK, your pet must have one of the following documents:

  • a UK pet health certificate
  • an EU pet passport (issued in the EU or the UK before 1 January 2021)
  • an Animal Health Card issued in Great Britain used to travel to the EU (which you can use up to 4 months after it was issued)

The Withdrawal Agreement (the agreement setting the terms of the withdrawal of the UK from the EU) provides certain rights to UK nationals living lawfully in EU member states beyond the transition period. This allows individuals to continue living, working and/or studying in an EU country after the transition period. However, there are several key considerations that UK citizens living in the EU should be aware of and prepare for by the end of 2020. 

Residency documents 

UK nationals must have applied for the relevant residency documents to prove that they have been living in an EU country legally before 31 December 2020. These documents could be obtained until 30 June 2021. 

To find the relevant documents, you should search for advice on residency documents on the government website of the EU country you are residing in. 

Family members

Close family members of UK nationals lawfully residing in an EU country will be allowed to move to that country and live with their relatives after Brexit provided that the relationship began before 31 December 2020. Close members are defined as:

  • spouses and registered partners
  • parents and grandparents 
  • dependent children and grandchildren 

Any children born to or legally adopted by a close family member listed above will also be permitted to move with their parent(s), provided that they have legal custody of the children.

Property in the EU 

UK nationals who currently own property in the EU will not face any issues relating to their property ownership. The laws on ownership, rent, taxation and shared ownership will remain the same. 

Individuals intending to buy property in the EU will have to follow new rules on the acquisition process. This is because some EU countries have separate property ownership laws for EU and non-EU citizens. Therefore, it’s important to check with local authorities on whether your status as a non-EU citizen will impact your acquisition plans. 

Wills and inheritance 

Inheritance tax laws in the UK are not impacted by Brexit. Your will is not invalid even when the will includes property in the EU. 

If you live permanently in the EU then inheritance tax will only be paid on your UK property (eg land or bank accounts that you own in the UK). However, if you have had your permanent home in the UK at any time in the last 3 years or lived in the UK for 15 of the last 20 years, HMRC will treat you as living permanently in the UK for inheritance tax purposes.

Ask a lawyer if you have any questions regarding inheritance abroad.  


The healthcare rights of all UK nationals lawfully living in the EU after Brexit will remain the same. This includes situations where the UK pays for their healthcare, for instance through the S1 scheme

As a reminder, EHICs will no longer be valid after reaching their expiry date, even for UK nationals living in Europe after. However, GHICs will replace EHICs. 

Pensions and benefits

The UK government will continue to pay state pensions, child and disability benefits to UK nationals living in the EU in 2021, provided all eligibility requirements are met. This applies even if individuals only start claiming their pensions after 31 December 2020. 

For more information, please see the government’s guidance on benefits and pensions in the EU.

Driving in the EU

The government has recommended that UK nationals living in the EU replace their UK driving licence with a local licence as soon as possible

This is because licence exchange arrangements may end in 2021 and UK licence holders may have to retake their driving test in the EU country they reside in. For more information on the time limits for each EU country, read the government’s guidance.

Studying in the EU

As of 2021, the UK government has introduced the Turing programme to replace the Erasmus scheme for students studying abroad. The Turing programme will provide similar opportunities for students to study and work abroad as the Erasmus scheme but now include countries across the world. 

Voting rights in the UK

UK nationals living in the EU after Brexit will still be able to participate in UK elections up to 15 years after they were last registered to vote in the UK. To do so, you must register as an overseas voter

Returning to the UK 

UK nationals living lawfully in the EU retain the right to return, get a job and access benefits and services in the UK as the transition period has ended.

Close family members who are citizens of EU countries will be able to return to the UK with these nationals and apply to the EU Settlement Scheme until 29 March 2022, provided that you have lived with them in that country before 31 January 2020.

The UK government announced the introduction of a points-based system of immigration. This will take effect from 1 January 2021 as the EU’s Free Movement of People comes to an end.

If you meet the eligibility criteria, it is recommended that you apply for British citizenship before Brexit takes place. 

EU nationals living in the UK 

Any EU, EEA or Swiss citizens and their family members living in the UK before 31 December 2020 were able to apply to the EU Settlement Scheme to continue living in the UK after 30 June 2021. 

EU, EEA and Swiss citizens can use the UK government’s online tool to view their immigration status and to prove their status to others.

For more information, read Settled status in the UK


After 31 December 2020, EU nationals are allowed to enter the UK and remain in the country for up to 6 months without a visa. If you intend to remain in the UK longer than 6 months, you will need a visa. 

The UK government released new immigration forms for students and skilled workers for visa applications online. 

Skilled workers

Some workers will be able to enter the UK to carry out a skilled profession. They will need to satisfy the following requirements:

  • have a job offer from an approved employer-sponsor
  • for a position that requires at least A level (or equivalent qualifications)
  • must speak English
  • must be paid at least £25,600 a year, £10.10 per hour or the ‘going rate’ for the type of work they’ll be undertaking

There is also a UK government Global Talent Scheme to fast-track immigration for highly-skilled scientists and researchers to enter the UK without a job offer. This scheme continues to apply to EU, EEA and Swiss citizens.


Student visa routes are opened up to EU, EEA and Swiss citizens. Students can apply for a visa to study in the UK if they:

  • have been offered a place on a course

  • can speak, read, write and understand English

  • have enough money to support themselves and pay for their course

A graduate visa immigration route is available to certain international students. Students can apply for a graduate visa if:

  • they are in the UK
  • their current visa is a student visa or tier 4 (general) student visa
  • they studied a UK bachelor’s degree, postgraduate degree or another eligible course for a minimum period of time with their student visa or tier 4 (general) student visa
  • they successfully completed that course

 Qualifying international students will be able to apply for a visa to stay and work (or look for work) in the UK for up to 2 years after completing their studies. This period is extended to up to 3 years for PhD graduates.


Nationals of the EU, EEA and Switzerland will not be required to get a visa to enter the UK when visiting the UK for up to 6 months

All migrants looking to enter the UK for other reasons (such as work or study) will need to apply for entry clearance in advance.

EU, EEA and Swiss citizens will also be able to use ePassport gates (this will be kept under review).

Until at least January 2026, the UK government will continue to recognise identity cards used for travel by EU citizens and their EU family members who are both residents in the UK before the end of the transition period and hold status under the EU Settlement Scheme. The government will also recognise ICAO compliant identity cards from this group beyond 2026.

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